Some of these interiors may be real places, but most are studio constructions. Setting the action in Pigalle gives to a crime film an authenticity that is not just topographical but also discursive — from novels and newspapers the public knew that Pigalle was the natural habitat of the Paris gangster.
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The names of Pigalle nightclubs constitute a world of fantasy and imagination — Narcisse, Sphinx, Eve, Cupidon, Les Naturistes, La Lune Rousse — but the signs displaying them belong to a real and recognisable world. The fiction of these films take its characters from the real streets of Pigalle into an invented space, typically by bringing the protagonist to the door of a real nightclub and then showing him, on the other side, in a studio reconstruction.
Often there is a distinctive shift in the tones of the image, as we pass from an exterior illuminated by electric signs in the street to an interior illuminated by the full panoply of studio lighting. The nightclub in Touchez pas au grisbi is, similarly, given a false name at the point where we pass from a real street into a studio-made fiction. Bob le flambeur plays with this disposition by having its protagonist on the street outside in the peculiar light of daybreak, and then enter the studio-constructed nightclub, where men are gambling in near darkness.
We see no name for the nightclub in Bob le flambeur , though its exterior is shown to be on the rue Pigalle. Curiously, though the expectation would be that in a Pigalle nightclub the floorshow would include nude dancers, there is none in any of these three films. This was not a question of censorship, since nude acts featured in French films of this period with impunity e.
Femmes de Paris , En effeuillant la marguerite, Le Long des trottoirs.
Adam est Femmes de Paris. Paris clandestin. Despite displaying in detail the spectacle within the nightclub, Touchez pas au grisbi , Du rififi chez les hommes and Bob le flambeur all avoid the authenticity of naked bodies. Personally, I rate it third in my list, after Le Grisbi and Rififi. All the scenes between the inspector Michel Piccoli, excellent and the charming chick from the 16th Danick Patisson, perfect have an accuracy of tone which cuts right across the routine production.
In praising the dialogue of the film for its accuracy of tone, Godard anticipates one of the virtues of the New Wave, insofar as the language used is ordinary and natural. When Godard presents striptease in one of his own films, Une femme est une femme , he avoids Pigalle and makes no attempt to represent authentic performance. In his review, Godard also avoids considering how Chenal shows the streets of Paris, but in A bout de souffle he will pay homage to Rafles sur la ville when he stages a conversation on the boulevard du Montparnasse the scene I described at the beginning of this piece.
I have argued that Pigalle nightclubs in French gangster films are a peculiar locale where reality and fiction meet, where real exteriors are conjoined with invented interiors.
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When it comes to its nightclub, however, Rafles sur la ville deviates both from is own tendency to use real exteriors and from the norms of the genre to which it belongs. Rather than show establishing shots of the place Pigalle and then constructing the interior in the studio, the exterior space is entirely studio-constructed. The specific re-imagining of Pigalle in this film is unusual, but a number of other French noir films from this period use this kind of studio-constructed exterior, whereby they can better manipulate lighting and staging.
In so doing they connect with the tradition of French poetic realism, as here, in Razzia sur la Chnouf :. The films in the genre by Becker, Dassin and Melville stand out against this background because their streets are not studio confections. Nonetheless, we can distinguish how each film registers the real streets in front of its camera, and configures differently the topography of the city.
There are several modes of filming outside of the studio. This level includes views of the street filmed from inside a car, a mode that smaller cameras allowed the New Wave to exploit to the full. In '50s noir the artifice of back projection is the norm, as in Touchez pas au grisbi , with several passages that show the streets of Paris projected behind or in front of its characters in the studio as they pretend to drive:. The climactic drive across Paris in Du rififi chez les hommes is able to include real views from the car because it is a big American convertible a Oldsmobile Futuramic, according to the IMCDB , with more room for the camera:.
The best-known part of this reception has been, in a word, theoretical , and as such has often lost sight of—or misunderstood—the particular circumstances of his writings and how these circumstances inform and form a content that has sometimes been seen—to a degree correctly—as idiosyncratic.
Category:French novels adapted into films
What are the high points of this reception? Then, of course, there is post-structuralist Sade of Sollers, Barthes, and Foucault. Still, the historical approaches just mentioned tend not to pass through the French Revolution. Adorno and Horkheimer thus claimed that Sade was the monstrous revelation of what the instrumentalization of reason entails. But their Sade remains historically vague.
Lester Crocker similarly made the case for Sade as the logical culmination of enlightened materialism in nihilism with perhaps less verve but with considerably more attention to the array of philosophical inquiry in eighteenth-century France than Adorno and Horkheimer. A role for Sade could be found here, of course, although events were well under way by the time Philosophie dans le boudoir or his other major writings saw publication.
And although I am entirely sympathetic to historicist modes that do not reduce a work to its immediate or near immediate context, I think that we cannot really grasp Philosophie dans le boudoir in particular—nor can we see what it brings to our understanding of its context—unless we consider what I would be willing to call its occasional nature. The original text appears to have been published sometime in the second half of Although we do not know exactly how long Sade took to write it, generally speaking authors at the time did not linger over their manuscripts for years.
The radicalization of republicanism and democracy in the new constitution included the addition of various rights not articulated in the declaration: rights of association, to work, to public assistance, to education, the right of rebellion, and the abolition of slavery. Not only would the very question of parody make for interesting discussion, but so would topics such as the possible conflict of individual rights, reductio ad absurdam as a real political problem, and the violent aftermath of That we are not, however, faced with an entirely figurative use of sex is suggested by the philosophical and political investment in bonheur —long a part of ethical considerations—as good and goal.
Ann Thomson [Cambridge, ], Another way of looking at Philosophie dans le boudoir as a Revolutionary text would highlight the extent to which such issues where entwined with a cultural and gender politics that, again, did not spring up ab ovo in but that nonetheless has a specificity worthy of our attention. The association of divorce with choice and choice with manhood, however, looks more like a historically specific conjunction within the Revolution.
I would also suggest another interesting if potentially controversial linkage. We might take this possibility of thinking the absurd as at the very least conditioned by the Revolutionary context. In lieu of a conclusion then, let me schematically indicate a couple of possible directions for a renewed theoretical Sade both of which are returns of sort to questions that have been associated with Sade before and that I have already indicated above.
Ellen Kennedy [Cambridge, Mass. Surely the current interest in a post-liberal politics that has led to a re-examination of Schmitt—cognizant of his frightfully problematic commitments—might benefit as well from a circumspect return to Sade as an often articulate—frightfully so as well—thinker of violence not as something banished by the liberal political order but rather as inherent in it for such is the case that Philosophie dans le boudoir makes. Like any must , it must have style, a certain je ne sais quoi , it must be the little black dress of the event — rich in its references, an object of privilege, and, finally, one of a kind.
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Must I: An echo of representative genres and characters from the pre-Revolutionary and Revolutionary periods. The choice of style was thus a political choice. It demanded a strategy for confronting the inability of fiction to match the fictive excess of the real historical events of the French Revolution. And it also required staking a position with respect to rigid nostalgia for the past or flexible accommodation to constant change. The novel was a vexed genre, at best, with which to tackle the problem.
Her facility with different modes of storytelling, however, also involves an attempt to make fiction— however, well, fictional — into an agent of revolutionary change.
Yet each is, according to both Kantian principles and the competing consequentialist philosophy to which thermidorians were also attracted, excluded from full moral autonomy because of gender and status. As Hesse summarizes,.
Trois femmes, as scandalized readers recognized at the time, was the story of a band of outlaws; a story of the ethical life of women beyond the laws of propertied men When characters in Three Women make their moral choices, their decisions are generally catalysed by fictions. The use of fiction as a catalyst for or even agent of change becomes, in the second part of the novel, even more feckless, but remains equally beguiling.
If, in the first section, Constance devises impromptu fictions to give the appearance of virtue to choices based on an ethics of care, in the second half of the novel, she develops expedient fictions to enable a series of Jacobin experiments in radical social transformation through education.
When the son of the servant Josephine and the son of a noblewoman are mistakenly confused at birth, Constance contrives through persuasion to have them both nursed by Josephine and both given the same education by the Baronness of Altendorf. She pays a handsome sum to have male and female twins each be given, from birth, the names, clothing and education normally reserved for the other gender. Still, as Constance suggests, the dictionary is hardly suited to its audience; she herself resorts to bribing the young people of Altendorf in order to keep them in school.
Nonetheless, the first two, published sections of Trois femmes eschew mystification and sentiment as styles suited to the people. A lengthy authorial footnote embellishes on the theme, arguing against authors who set up characters as models of perfection for readers.
Readers, the footnote suggests, will always find a way of excusing themselves for failing to live up to those sentimental moral models and will never find themselves in moral situations that are unequivocal. The significance of this conclusion to Trois femmes is threefold. As female slave in the sphere of colonial authority and as biracial child placed at the ill-defined intersection between domestic intimacy and colonial exploitation, these new characters represent the degree zero of moral autonomy. Finally, against the grain of the style of her memoir, Constance stubbornly refuses to cast herself as a virtuous sentimental subject, an example for readers to emulate, or as the nostalgic victim of a turbulent age.
Her sentimental fable of reason, without a happy ending or, indeed any ending at all, is calculated as a lesson about the false moral authority of fiction. In novels, Constance comments:.
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Elizabeth C. Goldsmith and Dena Goodman. De la Correspondance au roman epistolaire.
Amsterdam: Rodopi, Princeton: Princeton UP, Doris Jakubec, Jean-Daniel Candaux. Tome III, and Cited in Cossy, , note 2. Posted in Novel , Political writing. If you ask someone at random walking down the street what comes to mind when one mentions the French Revolution, certain categories invariably come up: violence, blood, public disorder, guillotine, Marie-Antoinette, and— if the person has an interest in history or is over-educated — the Terror, pornographic political propaganda, and the tension of oppositional public discourses of sensibility and reason come up.
These impressions of the Revolution today echo those of the late 18 th and early 19 th century when traumatized people tried to make sense of their experiences. Representations of the French Revolution are today, as they were then, skewed either to the right or to the left. We welcome you all to an extensive gallery of treasured photographs of the achievements of Sapphire International School covering memorable events, functions, competitions at international, national and state level along with interschool and intraschool competitions and many more.
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